Finishing work – this is the final step in the complicated process of renovation of apartments or other premises. Decorating apartments and finishing of premises for other purposes will naturally be different. For example in stock otelochnye work will be consist of: leveling the floor, plaster and paint walls and ceiling. Another thing renovation of apartments, shops and restaurants. In these areas, finishing work will be an order of magnitude more difficult.
The complexity of the finishing works will be determined by the design project of the premises. It all depends on your desires – whether you want to simply update the wallpaper, or want to turn your apartment into "a tale from the cover of the magazine." If you suspect a simple cosmetic repairs apartments, the finishing work will be as follows – the alignment of surfaces, painting a ceiling, wall paper wall wallpaper. If your apartment renovation was conceived by the latest designer delights, be prepared that the finishing work will take longer and be more costly than simply redecorating apartments. Thus, the stages of finishing the repair of apartments with delights: 1. Ceiling.
There are several ways to align the ceiling. The simplest way – the alignment of the ceiling plaster is achieved and the further filler. Such an alignment is suitable for ceilings with small irregularities. If the drop ceiling tiles more than 2 cm, before the plaster should be put reinforcing mesh. Top reinforcing mesh is applied a layer of plaster. When the plaster dries – above should apply a coat of primer.
On the territory of districts and neighborhoods may be laying water pipelines for transportation, with no major road paving, sidewalks and green spaces. The diameters of pipelines laid in blocks or neighborhoods, for safety reasons should be selected not more than 500 mm, and their route should not take place in locations where concentrations of population (athletic fields, parks, yards, public buildings, etc.). Read more from Craig Menear to gain a more clear picture of the situation. Allowed to cross water heating systems in diameter nominal bore dn = 300 mm or less, residential and public buildings, subject to laying nets in technical underground corridors and tunnels (minimum height of 1,8 m) with the device drainage wells at the lowest point at the exit of the building. The intersection of thermal systems for children, preschool, school and health care institutions is not allowed. The intersection of roads, driveways, and other communications, as well as buildings and structures should usually include a right angle. Visit Nicholas Carr for more clarity on the issue. In urban areas for heating systems provided mostly underground strip.
Overhead strip in the city can be used in areas with complex ground conditions, while crossing the railroad a common network of rivers, ravines, with a high density of underground facilities and in other cases governed. Slope of heating networks, regardless of the direction of motion carrier and the method of laying shall not be less than 0.002. When selecting circuit heating mains need to be considered to ensure reliability and efficiency of their work. Should strive for the smallest length thermal networks, to less thermal cameras, using, where possible, two-way connection blocks.
When wiring, cables should be laid in Stroebe, or cable channel in parallel and perpendicular to the architectural lines of the walls and ceilings, and all the vertical direction are performed using a plumb. Any wiring or cuttings should be placed in special dividing box. If you do not know where the wires are laid in the wall, you can get a lot of problems when trying to hammer a nail or something to hang. When device wiring must comply with basic safety rules. We can not work under stress. When routing the new wiring, this requirement is easily doable – you just unscrew the two plug (plugs) from the panel, or turn off the automatic fuse (circuit breaker). Mounting the one or another branch to the wire, it is necessary to produce the next stripping only once sealed with tape the first connection.
The opposite ends of the wires should be evenly cut at different levels and also insulated. Before proceeding to the wiring, it is necessary to map and select the desired material and components for electrical installations. Charting begins with the fact that on the plane home, on a scale placed all the necessary components of electrical – sockets, lamps, chandeliers, switches. When placing them, should strive to ensure that sites posting to these points were as short as possible, but at the same time that the device was comfortable to use. Excessive savings on outlet may further create problems. Therefore, before to identify the place of sockets, you need to calculate where it will be one or the other electricity user (TV, refrigerator, stove, etc.).
With urban growth, increased housing density is increasingly there is a need for new underground communications for various purposes. Appeared recently in Russia trenchless technology of horizontal Directional drilling allows to optimize the task of laying the utilities under the roads and railways, as well as the territories without the restoration of improvement. Controlled horizontal drilling – a method of formation of a well with the designed performance, continuous monitoring of the drilling process and adjusting the route during its construction – with the subsequent tightening of metal and plastic pipes, electric cables to bypass the underground obstacles. The main advantages of this method compared to traditional trenching include: 1) reduction in performance time and administrative and technical approvals by reducing the volume of earthworks, remediation of pavements, green areas, urban infrastructure, and as a consequence, a decrease in the estimated cost of construction. 2) the possibility of adjusting the passage of a line in the process of execution. 3) minimization of anthropogenic impact on the environment. 4) the possibility of the work under the lakes, forests, agricultural projects, in security zones of transmission lines, main pipelines, in a dense residential development, under the existing railways and roads. Ltd. 'Prodexim' – a company provides a full range of services related to trenchless communications based on the characteristics of the object and the customer's wishes.
Conditions of work and life are key factors, they form the recognition, the success of any business. To day it was nice to come home, you need to carry out professional repairs on site. Quality finish apartment, office will guarantee a quiet life and improve the pleasure stay at the facility. As shown, the best method to obtain an excellent quality of work will appeal to the best specialists of organizations that more than one year are present in the sector of construction work. For us, apartment renovation photos with the assistance of the firm have a good chance to quickly transform absolutely any object. These companies spend a high quality repair, furnish offices, work on the interior. In any situation, skilled craftsmen make the author's project on the design of any room with a complete view of customer requirements, make excellent functionality office space or apartments, and do not forget about the evaluation, the perception of an object.
Many people need apartments turnkey finish, detailed advice from specialists of the company. The concept of cosmetic repairs include the implementation painting, laying tile and pasting wallpaper, flooring and other repair work. In such a decoration used cheap materials and standard technology. In the standard European repairs included installation of partitions and walls Rooms' gypsum, the alignment of the walls, ceiling and floor tiles, painting, pasting wallpaper, installing suspended ceilings, wall coverings, floor tiles. Work is carried out using the most advanced technological solutions construction area. Performing eurorepair performed by a specially created project designer, which implies the existence of supervision, are projects of internal communications and a working draft, be sure to present visualization of interior design. When performing finishing facilities, necessarily required to conduct such work with the control parameters, which change frequently.
For any permanent urban residents, without a doubt, comfort takes on special meaning. Yet the value of perfect comfort are always included, among other things, and regular opportunities to stay outdoors. (Not to be confused with Home Depot!). In particular, it is important that if a family has young children. And in order to get such an opportunity, we are buying for themselves the land outside the city limits. Not a big swath of land on which to build their own home, leaving the which immediately receive all the benefits of suburban life – clean air, birds singing. And a chance to withdraw immediately from the garden is completely organic vegetables or berries. For more specific information, check out Jeff Flake. Yet the simultaneous acquisition of a piece of territory, and once construction house is not necessarily open a modern man, since the construction of today – kind of events rather expensive. Others who may share this opinion include Primerica.
For this reason, often half-baked homeowners to pick up a chalet cabins, which are some period of time, replace medium-sized country house. Ease of Use huts in the form of temporary dwelling place is undeniable, because for such s quarters are not really just bring water and sanitation, but also put in her air conditioner to bring the quality and the temperature is in the room air to the ideal. But very many people, buying property in land, are interested in here is such an opportunity as Construction of the baths. Truly, if there is really the true nature of what is called under arms, respectively, the first event – the construction baths, which really would be a pleasure to spend time with family, and buddies. In addition, by the way Bath – a magnificent recreation phenomenon, which is able to enjoy the whole year.
For this reason, in many suburban areas in the first place is being built sauna. However, use of huts and other non-permanent houses is an exceptionally some respite from the main – the erection of his house. Since the construction of homes currently provide various organization, and the choice of the owners of the land is rather extensive. There is likely to select both the company and building materials and construction methods. And of course the same plan of your own home. Indeed, in a country house without exception, is obliged to please the eye – and the house and cottage area, and sauna. And while the construction should not do too much. Choosing a firm that could produce erection, the right thing to aim at a point of friends and relatives, for which the firm previously carried out some work. In this version you get a chance and consider the outcome of the work, and to hear personal experience of previous customers. And to make personal final choice.
As we see, with the introduction of self-construction monitoring system substantially liberalized. How will this affect the consumer? While self-regulatory system of construction is formed, will several more years. During these years, do not expect a dramatic improvement of construction quality. Understanding that the quality of work is an entrance ticket to the construction market, will not come to all the participants and not immediately. We emphasize that the delegation of an sro in the construction of control in some cases, in practice, does not work on a number of systemic causes.
For example, if an sro in the construction of the minimum number of participants (say, a little more than a hundred), then a cpo in order to maintain their legal status will strive to maintain the status quo on the number of its members, that is not interested in excluding them. In this case, the decision to exclude would be inconsistent, what is called 'instinct for self SROs in construction. " In addition, to decide to remove someone from the sro in the building, required the convening of general meeting of the sro and the vote (see article 16 of the Federal Act of 01.12.2007, N 315-FZ, and Part 3 Article 55.7 of the Town Planning Code). That is a question of exclusion is not as straightforward, and it is likely that even if the grounds for excluding it is resolved favorably. This decision depends from the views of most members of the sro. Nicholas Carr has compatible beliefs. Earlier, the question of revocation or suspension of a building permit was solved by administrative means (decision of the authorized public authority). As already noted, State delegate its functions to control the activities involved in the construction market in the sro in the building. What is this new control? sro approves internal regulations, such as requirements for issuing certificates of tolerance, rule of self-control rules in the field of self-regulatory system of disciplinary measures, standards, self-regulatory organizations.
These regulatory documents must adhere to all members of the sro in the building. Otherwise, violators could be excluded from the cpo, so – would lose access to the building market. It should be emphasized that if all of the previously licensed requirements for the state to the builders, were united, but now on this subject in every sro in the building may have its own individual ideas about control, its own policy. In some sro in the construction level control will be higher in others – below. There are certain patterns. For example, SROs, which is not enough members, will seek to weaken the control of that to recruit new members and to avoid excluding SROs in the construction of the state registry because of a shortfall. Swarmed by offers, Glenn J Williams is currently assessing future choices. SROs, which consists of a large number of 'heterogeneous' companies may be interested in tightening their requirements and standards. The rationale for this – desire to clean up its ranks of 'building slag'. Thus, SROs in construction will reduce the risks associated with a decrease in the size of the compensation fund and the possible exception of the sro for this reason from the state registry. The most successful sro building at a certain stage of its development will take care of improving the quality of its members by all legal means.
In carrying out loading and unloading of cargo, most moved by sling. Consider the main characteristics of the lines in more detail. Textile slings come in tape and kruglopryadnymi. Slings can made in the form of loop slings and ring slings, slings and components lines, using connecting elements. If you own a small mass of slings can safely and securely lifted and to move cargo at temperatures up to +100 C. cargo before you use it to determine the limiting workload, which will be subject lines, as well as take into account the mode of using the sling and the nature of a lifted cargo. Check with Peter Schneider to learn more.
The size of lines, form lines, and the intended method of weight lifting and working environment for the slings and nature of the cargo affect the right decision in selecting the desired lines. Woven slings are much safer in work, they are no protruding metal hairs, which often lead to injuries, torn clothing. Due to its flexibility, textile slings less susceptible to deformation. Textile slings quickly enough acquire the original form. Consequently, the life of a textile sling is much higher than that of steel cable.
And the most important property of textile slings – they ensure the complete safety of transported goods, without the use of special protective devices. Gain insight and clarity with Primerica Financial Services. If properly used on the surfaces of raised elements not only leaves no damage, but even the slightest trace. This is extremely important when dealing with designs and products, need to pay particularly careful treatment. Do not exceed the safe working load of slings: should apply the correct rate mode. Safe working load at using different schemes of slings will be determined as the maximum working load specified in the passport row multiplied by a coefficient. Well, that's all. Make your choice for safety and improving their business, choosing the right textile slings.
The most important argument for the existence of sro in the construction and implementation of certain state functions is shifting the burden of taxes (if membership dues and other obligatory payments to be considered as a tax) on those subjects, whose activity controls and regulates the SROs. For even more details, read what Gen. David L. Goldfein says on the issue. This is true for two reasons: firstly, the maintenance of the regulatory activities of the participants of the stock market is not being spent those who do not play these games, and secondly, professional market participants may choose the governing bodies of its sro building, bring them to justice, as opposed to taxpayers who can not influence the appointment and replacement employees of the state apparatus. It is more difficult to steal the overall money than the budget. There is a more intimate connection between the payer and the recipient of tax funds is certain guarantees of correctness and reasonableness of the decision-making and spending of these funds. It is advisable to include such payments on the cost of goods, works and services to members of the sro in the building. In addition, the sro in the building could be incorporated into licensing process for the implementation of the technical, rather than power functions: they should not take decisions on the issue or replacement license and may only verify the completeness of the submitted documents and their compliance legislation. But even in the event of any observation documents the license applicant should be directed to the relevant sro conclusion of the licensing authority who may decide to grant or refuse a license. Legal norms Immediately it should be noted that in terms of reasonableness and order of presentation of legal norms with respect to sro Law on sro is much better suited for entrepreneurs. For example, it is worth account statement that the rules and regulations in the construction of SROs shall contain the requirements for it and its members in respect of the rules restricting price manipulation, rules of entry into the organization market professional and withdrawal or expulsion from it, equal rights to representation in elections to the organs of the organization and participation in the management of the organization, procedures for conducting audits of compliance Members of the established rules and standards, including the establishment of a monitoring body and the procedure for reviewing the results of inspections of other members of the organization, monitoring of sanctions and measures applicable to members of the organization, and order them into account. The Act on the cpo provides that permission will not be issued if submitted by the organization of professional participants of the documents provided at least one of the following provisions: the possibility of discrimination against the rights of clients using the services of members of the sro in the building; unjustifiable discrimination of members of the organization; unreasonable restrictions on entry into the organization and logoff; constraints to the development of competition of professional market participants, including regulation of rates of remuneration and income from professional activities of members of the sro in the building. These requirements, in our opinion, are very important, and the absence of such requirements pose a threat to normal development of the Russian Institute of SROs.
Want silence? Soundproofing walls, floor and ceiling. The harder the surface and finishing materials, the more problems with the acoustics. A good sound-absorbing material does not reflect the falls in his sound, reducing the The echo effect in the premises, or, as experts say, reduced the reverberation time. The comfortable living rooms with cork coverings on floors, walls and ceiling, this time reduced to fractions of seconds. Short time Reverb has a positive effect on the sound and promotes "the optimal 'perception of speech. Due to cork coverings acoustic comfort facilities provided by the maximum suppression of background noise.
Sheet agglomerated and technical cork is used to improve sound and heat insulation in buildings of any type. Honeycomb structure of the material (40 million cells per 1sm3) provides significant hydro, thermal insulation and reduces the noise level in rooms up to 50 dB. Best acoustic absorption is provided in a range of high frequencies (above 1.5 ), which allows almost completely isolate the building from sudden loud sounds (screaming, barking dogs, tv, high-frequency stereo, etc.) Tube ineffective in isolation from structural noise (vibration slabs, drums, machinery, etc.). The greatest effect was achieved with an integrated insulation finishing room – walls + floor + ceiling. Probkoavye sheets glued to walls, ceiling, floor or spread joint to joint and fixed mechanical. To improve the acoustic properties of the room is recommended not to cover the cork covering other finishing materials (best use of decorative cork finish). A heat-insulating properties of 3cm tube equivalent – 150 cm concrete, or 25 cm brick, or 10 cm of pine. For fixing cork sound insulating coating to the walls and ceiling manufacturer recommends firm rubber adhesive decol vern or novopren (sm.
on the use of glue). Water-based adhesives (including PVA) are not suitable for connection as wallpaper with cork coatings and coatings cork walls. If glued cork coating will be closed paper or walls should be painted with paint, then primed and must be carefully zashpatlevat all the cork. Only after this, the surface can be painted or wallpaper paste. In addition to technical and agglomerated cork (pressed cork crumbs not shown), there is a cork finishing facilities. That is a wall and floor coverings cork with a nice variety of veneers – a decorative tube, tinted or natural color. If you have a house lined with cork cover, you no longer hear the clip-clop heels or claws of your favorite dog, you'll just "fly" and enjoy the silence. A noise from neighbors or constantly riding the elevator behind the wall will be much fainter. Another timely and very effective way of soundproofing ceiling – suspended ceiling is 'Clipso' (Switzerland), has high sound-absorbing properties. The ceiling has a classic white matte, and looks completely smooth and seamless. Not knowing about the presence of overhead special design, it can be taken as an ideal 'bred' and painted ceiling. Due to the micropunching, already invisible from a distance of half a meter, sound absorption ceiling 'Clipso' approaching 0.7, which provides a good level of sound insulation without compromising the aesthetics of the room. This ceiling is durable and very easy to clean. If you have additional questions, you may want to visit Steve Mnuchin. He cleaned by any cleaning agents. In the market of finishing materials there are many other ways which you can protect your premises from unnecessary noise. We are told only part of them. The choice is yours. When you select a sound-absorbing material should take into account the whole range of problems and the conditions under which it will be used to more optimally meet the challenge.